Sustainable development is the most urgent challenge facing humanity. The fundamental question is how the world economy can continue to develop in a way that is socially inclusive, advances human rights, and ensures environmental sustainability. The fight against extreme poverty through the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has made great progress over the past 15 years, but more than 1 billion people continue to live in extreme poverty. Inequality and social exclusion are widening within most countries. As the world population is estimated to rise to 9 billion by 2050 and global GDP to more than U.S.$200 trillion, the world urgently needs to address the sustainable development challenges of ending poverty, increasing social inclusion, achieving human rights and sustaining the planet.